EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF CHITOSAN AGAINST ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS : AN INVITRO STUDY
Author Name: Dr. Sanjana Rajan, Dr. Sunil M. Eraly, Dr. Priya R., Dr. Sonu Raveendran, Dr. Anju N. V., Dr. M. A. Shreya
Abstract: Background: Enterococcus faecalis are considered the most resistant species of bacteria which are responsible for root canal treatment failures. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide. Research reveal that 0.2% chitosan has effectively removed smear layer from the root canals after instrumentation and has good antibacterial action. An ideal irrigant should have antimicrobial property comparable to NaOCl. This study wasconducted to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of a higher concentration of chitosan (0.6%) against Enterococcus faecalis.
Materials and Methods: For preparation of the test solution(0.6% chitosan), 0.6g of chitosan was diluted in 100 ml of 1%acetic acid and the mixture was stirred for 2h using a magnetic stirrer until obtaining crystalline homogeneous solution. A sterile 96 micro titer well plate was labeled: Group I (control group) - 5.25% NaOCl, Group II (experimental group) - 0.6%Chitosan. A volume of 1 μl, 10 μl, 50 μl and 100μl of test material was pipetted into 10 wells each. Following which nutrient broth (100μl) was added and finally, microbial suspension (100μl) of E. faecalis was added to each well. After well -mixing, the plates were incubated at 370 C for 24 hours and Optical density (OD) reading was taken after incubation.
Results: Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) at a significance level of 0.05, using SPSS version12.0.1 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The statistical analysis of the result revealed that 5.25% NaOCl had significantly better antibacterial action than 0.6% chitosan.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study it was concluded that 0.6% chitosan shows antimicrobial properties comparable to that of 5.25% NaOCl.
KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES REGARDING PHARMACOVIGILANCE AMONG STUDENTS, HOUSE SURGEONS AND TEACHING FACULTY IN A DENTAL COLLEGE IN KERALA
Author Name: Dr. Subramaniam R, Dr. Suneesh Kuruvilla, Dr. Pooja Latti, Dr. Noushida NM, Dr. Liyas Pius
Abstract: Background: Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s) are currently a problem of major concern . Studies reveal that ADR reporting in India is just less than 1% compared to world-wide figure of 5% .Adverse drug reaction reporting is the foundation of any pharmacovigilance system and the timely identification and reporting of ADRs to the regional or national drug-regulating authorities are critical. Dental students can play a pivotal role and bringing a paradigm shift in successful implementation of pharmacovigilance program provided they possess adequate knowledge and skill. The study objective was to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Pharmacovigilance among students, house surgeons and teaching faculty in a Dental college in Kerala.
Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire based survey. A prefabricated validity tested questionnaire was devised for use based on previous studies. The questionnaire consisted of questions on professional data designation, grade;and18 questions assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices on Pharmacovigilance. Results were expressed as a number and percentage of respondents for each. Chi-square test was performed to compare the response in relation to year of study and designation.
Results: The total sample size was 162. 28% knew that doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists can report Adverse drug reactions. About 25% knew about the existence of a pharmacovigilance program in India. 65% knew the regulatory body responsible for monitoring ADR’s in India. About 96% felt that ADR reporting should be mandatory. 93.8% opined that pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to health care professionals. About 35% reported to experiencing ADR’s during their practice, yet none of the 162 respondents have reported an ADR to the pharmacovigilance centre. Only 2.5%had seen a reporting form and only 1.2% had received a prior training on reporting of the same.
Conclusion: The study showed that although the respondents had a positive attitude towards pharmacovigilance, their knowledge and practice was poor.
Keywords: Adverse drug reactions, pharmacovigilance, dental
students, dentists, house surgeons
EFFECT OF CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE ON SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF DENTIN BONDING SYSTEM
Author Name: Dr. Anju N. V., Dr. Sunil M. Eraly, Dr. Priya R., Dr. Sonu Raveendran, Dr. Sanjana Rajan, Dr. M. A. Shreya
Abstract: A i m : To d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f d e n t i n deproteinization using 10% calcium hypochlorite on the shear bond strength of total-etch adhesive.
Materials and Methods: The occlusal surface of twenty extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were sectioned to expose superficial dentin. The samples were etched and randomly divided into two groups consisting of 10 teeth each. In Group 1(control) dentin bonding agent was applied. Ingroup 2, samples were deproteinized with 10%calcium hypochlorite prior to the application of bonding agent. After completion of the adhesive procedures in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, resin composite was inserted into aplastic tube placed on the specimen and light polymerized as per manufacturer’s instructions. All specimens were stored at 37°C in water for 24hours, and the specimens were transferred to the universal testing machine, and shear bond strength analysis was done at a crosshead speed of1.0mm/min.
Results: Statistical evaluation revealed that there was a significant enhancement in shear bond strength with the application of calcium hypochlorite after acid etching (mean 41.06MPa).Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it was concluded that the removal of unsupported collagen fiber with calcium hypochlorite after acid etching significantly improved the bond strength.
Keywords: Dentin deproteinization, calcium
hypochlorite, shear bond strength
CHAIR SIDE DIAGNOSTICS IN PERIODONTICS : A REVIEW
Author Name: Dr. Shilpa Ramachandran, Dr. Mohammed Shereef, Dr. P. Jayachandran, Dr. Angel Fenol
success of any periodontal treatment depends on accurate initial diagnosis.
Traditional clinical measurements used for periodontal diagnosis are often of
limited usefulness as they are indicators of previous periodontal disease
rather than present disease activity. Hence, there is a need for developing
novel diagnostic kits that can detect active disease, predict the disease
progression and to evaluate its response to periodontal therapy. Different
chair side diagnostic kits are discussed in this review which would be helpful
for proper diagnosis, evaluating a disease prognosis and proper treatment
Keywords: Periodontal disease, diagnostic, chair side
ZIRCONIA CROWNS IN PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY: A REVIEW
Author Name: Dr. Anjana G., Dr. Darshana V.
Abstract:Aesthetic Restorations of Primary teeth
presents the Pediatric Dentist multiple challenges. There are different types of restorations for
complete crown coverage, like polycarbonate crowns, acid etched crown,
stainless steel crown (SSC), open–faced SSC with veneer placed on chair side
and commercially veneered SSC. Each of these techniques presents technical,
functional or esthetic compromises that intricate their efficient and effective
usage. During the last
decade, zirconium dioxide (zirconia, ZrO2) ceramics, which have superior
technical properties and aesthetic advantages have been used as an alternative
material. Recently, zirconium dioxide ceramic prefabricated crown has gained
acceptance in the treatment of primary teeth. Prefabricated zirconia crown
offers more esthetic and biocompatible full coverage for primary incisors and
molars. They are anatomically contoured, metal free, bio‑inert,
and caries resistant. The choice of full coverage restoration for primary teeth
must provide good esthetics in addition to restoring function and durability.
This article presents an overview of zirconia crowns in Pediatric dentistry.
Keywords: Zirconia crowns, pediatric crowns
EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES – AN INEVITABLE CHALLENGE
Author Name: Dr. Smitha Nair
Childhood Caries or ECC is a virulent form of caries affecting the primary
teeth of infants and preschool children. The clinical features of ECC are unique.
They range from white spots found on the facial surfaces of the maxillary
incisors, mandibular molars and rarely the mandibular incisors. The other types
are the mild to moderate and the moderate to severe. Though numerous preventive
and treatment modalities are available, seldom are they harnessed. The
preventive and management strategies include delaying and reducing the
bacterial load, diet counseling, maintenance of good oral hygiene, use of
sealants, interim therapeutic restorations (ITR), use of silver diamine
fluoride and restorative treatment. A combined multifaceted approach with good
team work would help in combating this multifactorial disease.
Keywords: Early Childhood caries, remineralization, primary
PALATAL ROTATION FLAP FOR CLOSURE OF ORO-ANTRAL FISTULA : A CASE REPORT
Author Name: Dr. Muhammad Ali T., Dr. Sobitha G., Dr. Vidhya R., Dr. Dibin R.
Abstract: Oroantral fistula can occur following extraction
of tooth with close proximity of roots to the sinus. It need to be addressed
early due to risk of infection to the maxillary sinus and associated patient
discomfort. Various options are available for the closure of OAF, like buccal
advancement flap, buccal fat pad graft, tongue flaps etc. Here we are
discussing a case where post extraction OAF was closed using palatal pedicled
rotation flap, with successful closure of the fistula and uneventful healing.
Keywords: Early Childhood caries, remineralization, primary tooth
GINGIVAL DEPIGMENTATION : A CASE REPORT
Author Name: Dr. Meenakshi K. J., Dr. Biju Balakrishnan, Dr. Rajesh Vyloppillil
beautiful smile definitely enhances the personality of an individual and
reveals self-confidence. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the
shape, position, and colour of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. The colour of the gingiva depends on varying
degree of melanin deposition. Gingival melanin pigmentation is a common
aesthetic problem. This problem is aggravated in patients with a gummy smile or
excessive gingival display. Various techniques of depigmentation have been
explained in the literature to treat this entity. Here we present a case of
hyperpigmentation treated with scalpel, and electrosurgical procedure in a
split mouth design with a note on comparison of healing.